Robert Axelrod is the Walgreen Professor for the Study of Human Understanding at the University of Michigan. He has appointments in the Department of Political Science and the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy. He is best known for his interdisciplinary work on the evolution of cooperation (cited in more than five hundred books and four thousand articles). His current research interests include complexity theory (especially agent-based modeling), and international security. Recently, Axelrod has consulted and lectured on promoting cooperation and harnessing complexity for the United Nations, the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Defense, and various organizations serving health care professionals, business leaders, and K-12 educators. He holds a BA in mathematics from the University of Chicago (1964), and a PhD in political science from Yale (1969).